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1、<p><b>  英文文獻資料(一)</b></p><p>  Clusters and the New Economics of Competition</p><p>  Michael E. Porter</p><p> ?。℉arvard university)</p><p>  Why Clu

2、sters Are Critical to Competition</p><p>  Modern competition depends on productivity, not on access to inputs or the scale of individual enterprises.Productivity rests on how companies compete,not on the pa

3、rticular fields they compete in.Companies can be highly productive in any industry– shoes, agriculture, or semiconductors – if they employ sophisticated methods, use advanced technology,and offer unique products and serv

4、ices. All industries can employ advanced technology; all industries can be knowledge intensive. </p><p>  The sophistication with which companies compete in a particular location, however, is strongly influe

5、nced by the quality of the local business environment.1 Companies cannot employ advanced logistical techniques, for example, without a high quality transportation infrastructure. Nor can companies effectively compete on

6、sophisticated service without well-educated employees. Businesses cannot operate efficiently under onerous regulatory red tape or under a court system that fails to resolve disput</p><p>  Clusters affect co

7、mpetition in three broad ways:first, by increasing the productivity of companies based in the area; second, by driving the direction and pace of innovation, which underpins future productivity growth; and third, by stimu

8、lating the formation of new businesses, which expands and strengthens the cluster itself. A cluster allows each member to benefit as if it had greater scale or as if it had joined with others formally – without requiring

9、 it to sacrifice its flexibility.</p><p>  Clusters and Productivity. Being part of a cluster allows companies to operate more productively in sourcing inputs; accessing information, technology,and needed in

10、stitutions; coordinating with related companies; and measuring and motivating improvement.</p><p>  Better Access to Employees and Suppliers. Companies in vibrant clusters can tap into an existing pool of sp

11、ecialized and experienced employees, thereby lowering their search and transaction costs in recruiting. Because a cluster signals opportunity and reduces the risk of relocation for employees, it can also be easier to att

12、ract talented people from other locations, a decisive advantage in some industries.</p><p>  A well-developed cluster also provides an efficient means of obtaining other important inputs.Such a cluster offer

13、s a deep and specialized supplier base. Sourcing locally instead of from distant suppliers lowers transaction costs. It minimizes the need for inventory, eliminates importing costs and delays, and – because local reputat

14、ion is important – lowers the risk that suppliers will overprice or renege on commitments. Proximity improves communications and makes it easier for suppliers to prov</p><p>  Formal alliances with distant s

15、uppliers can mitigate some of the disadvantages of distant outsourcing. But all formal alliances involve their own complex bargaining and governance problems and can inhibit a company’s flexibility. The close, informal r

16、elationships possible among companies in a cluster are often a superior Arrangement. </p><p>  In many cases, clusters are also a better alternative to vertical integration.Compared with in-house units, outs

17、ide specialists are often more cost effective and responsive, not only in component production but also in services such as training. Although extensive vertical integration may have once been the norm, a fast-changing e

18、nvironment can render vertical integration inefficient, ineffective, and inflexible.</p><p>  Even when some inputs are best sourced from a distance, clusters offer advantages. Suppliers trying to penetrate

19、a large, concentrated market will price more aggressively, knowing that as they do so they can realize efficiencies in marketing and in service. </p><p>  Working against a cluster’s advantages in assembling

20、 resources is the possibility that competition will render them more expensive and scarce. But companies do have the alternative of outsourcing many inputs from other locations, which tends to limit potential cost penalt

21、ies. More important, clusters increase not only the demand for specialized inputs but also their supply.</p><p>  Access to Specialized Information. Extensive market, technical, and competitive information a

22、ccumulates within a cluster, and members have preferred access to it. In addition, personal relationships and community ties foster trust and facilitate the flow of information. These conditions make information more tra

23、nsferable.</p><p>  Complementarities. A host of linkages among cluster members results in a whole greater than the sum of its parts. In a typical tourism cluster, for example, the quality of a visitor’s exp

24、erience depends not only on the appeal of the primary attraction but also on the quality and efficiency of complementary businesses such as hotels, restaurants, shopping outlets, and transportation facilities. Because me

25、mbers of the cluster are mutually dependent, good performance by one can boost the success of</p><p>  Complementarities come in many forms. The most obvious is when products complement one another in meetin

26、g customers’ needs, as the tourism example illustrates. Another form is the coordination of activities across companies to optimize their collective productivity. In wood products, for instance, the efficiency of sawmill

27、s depends on a reliable supply of high-quality timber and the ability to put all the timber to use – in furniture (highest quality), pallets and boxes (lower quality), or wood </p><p>  Logging operations, f

28、or example, had to modify cutting and sorting procedures, while sawmills had to develop the capacity to process wood in more sophisticated ways. Coordination to develop standard wood classifications and measures was an i

29、mportant enabling step. Geographically dispersed companies are less likely to recognize and capture such linkages.</p><p>  Other complementarities arise in marketing. A cluster frequently enhances the reput

30、ation of a location in a particular field, making it more likely that buyers will turn to a vendor based there. Italy’s strong reputation for fashion and design, for example, benefits companies involved in leather goods,

31、 footwear, apparel, and accessories. Beyond reputation, cluster members often profit from a variety of joint marketing mechanisms, such as company referrals, trade fairs, trade magazines, and marke</p><p>  

32、Finally, complementarities can make buying from a cluster more attractive for customers. Visiting buyers can see many vendors in a single trip. They also may perceive their buying risk to be lower because one location pr

33、ovides alternative suppliers. That allows them to multisource or to switch vendors if the need arises. Hong Kong thrives as a source of fashion apparel in part for this reason.</p><p>  Access to Institution

34、s and Public Goods. Investments made by government or other public institutions– such as public spending for specialized infrastructure or educational programs – can enhance a company’s productivity. The ability to recru

35、it employees trained at local programs, for example, lowers the cost of internal training. Other quasi-public goods, such as the cluster’s information and technology pools and its reputation, arise as natural by-products

36、 of competition.</p><p>  It is not just governments that create public goods that enhance productivity in the private sector. Investments by companies – in training programs, infrastructure, quality centers

37、, testing laboratories, and so on – also contribute to increased productivity. Such private investments are often made collectively because cluster participants recognize the potential for collective benefits.</p>

38、<p>  Better Motivation and Measurement. Local rivalry is highly motivating. Peer pressure amplifies competitive pressure within a cluster,even among noncompeting or indirectly competing companies. Pride and the de

39、sire to look good in the local community spur executives to attempt to outdo one another.</p><p>  Clusters also often make it easier to measure and compare performances because local rivals share general ci

40、rcumstances – for example, labor costs and local market access – and they perform similar activities. Companies within clusters typically have intimate knowledge of their suppliers’ costs. Managers are able to compare co

41、sts and employees’ performance with other local companies. Additionally, financial institutions can accumulate knowledge about the cluster that can be used to monitor perfo</p><p>  Clusters and Innovation.

42、In addition to enhancing productivity, clusters play a vital role in a company’s ongoing ability to innovate. Some of the same characteristics that enhance current productivity have an even more dramatic effect on innova

43、tion and productivity growth.</p><p>  Because sophisticated buyers are often part of a cluster, companies inside clusters usually have a better window on the market than isolated competitors do. Computer co

44、mpanies based in Silicon Valley and Austin, Texas, for example, plug into customer needs and trends with a speed difficult to match by companies located elsewhere. The ongoing relationships with other entities within the

45、 cluster also help companies to learn early about evolving technology, component and machinery availability, ser</p><p>  Clusters do more than make opportunities for innovation more visible. They also provi

46、de the capacity and the flexibility to act rapidly. A company within a cluster often can source what it needs to implement innovations more quickly. Local suppliers and partners can and do get closely involved in the inn

47、ovation process, thus ensuring a better match with customers’ requirements. </p><p>  Companies within a cluster can experiment at lower cost and can delay large commitments until they are more assured th

48、at a given innovation will pan out. In contrast, a company relying on distant suppliers faces greater challenges in every activity it coordinates with other organizations – in contracting, for example, or securing delive

49、ry or obtaining associated technical and service support. Innovation can be even harder in vertically integrated companies, especially in those that face difficul</p><p>  Reinforcing the other advantages fo

50、r innovation is the sheer pressure – competitive pressure, peer pressure, constant comparison – that occurs in a cluster. Executives vie with one another to set their companies apart. For all these reasons, clusters can

51、remain centers of innovation for decades.</p><p>  Clusters and New Business Formation. </p><p>  It is not surprising, then, that many new companies grow up within an existing cluster rather th

52、an at isolated locations. New suppliers, for example, proliferate within a cluster because a concentrated customer base lowers their risks and makes it easier for them to spot market opportunities. Moreover, because deve

53、loped clusters comprise related industries that normally draw on common or very similar inputs, suppliers enjoy expanded opportunities.</p><p>  Clusters are conducive to new business formation for a variety

54、 of reasons. Individuals working within a cluster can more easily perceive gaps in products or services around which they can build businesses. Beyond that, barriers to entry are lower than elsewhere. Needed assets, skil

55、ls, inputs, and staff are often readily available at the cluster location, waiting to be assembled into a new enterprise.</p><p>  Local financial institutions and investors, already familiar with the cluste

56、r, may require a lower risk premium on capital. In addition, the cluster often presents a significant local market, and an entrepreneur may benefit from established relationships. All of these factors reduce the perceive

57、d risks of entry – and of exit, should the enterprise fail. </p><p>  The formation of new businesses within a cluster is part of a positive feedback loop. An expanded cluster amplifies all the benefits I ha

58、ve described – it increases the collective pool of competitive resources, which benefits all the cluster’s members. The net result is that companies in the cluster advance relative to rivals at other locations.</p>

59、<p>  英文文獻中文翻譯(二)</p><p>  來(lái)源:哈佛商業(yè)評論Vol.76第6期 1998年</p><p>  作者:邁克·E. 波特</p><p><b>  出版時(shí)間:1998</b></p><p><b>  簇群與新競爭經(jīng)濟學(xué)</b></p&g

60、t;<p>  (美)邁克·E. 波特</p><p>  為什么簇群對競爭至關(guān)重要?</p><p>  現代競爭取決于生產(chǎn)力, 而非取決于投入或單個(gè)企業(yè)的規模。生產(chǎn)力取決于公司如何競爭, 而非它們在何領(lǐng)域競爭。如果公司運用熟練的方法和先進(jìn)的技術(shù), 提供獨特的產(chǎn)品和服務(wù),那任何產(chǎn)業(yè),鞋業(yè)、農業(yè)或半導體產(chǎn)業(yè)都能產(chǎn)生較高的生產(chǎn)力。所有產(chǎn)業(yè)都能夠運用先進(jìn)的技術(shù);所有產(chǎn)業(yè)

61、都能成為知識密集型產(chǎn)業(yè)。</p><p>  然而, 公司在某一特定的地理位置進(jìn)行競爭的復雜程度受當地商業(yè)環(huán)境質(zhì)量的影響極</p><p>  大。例如,如果缺乏高質(zhì)量的交通運輸基礎設施,公司就無(wú)法使用先進(jìn)的后勤技術(shù)。同樣,如果沒(méi)有受過(guò)良好教育的雇員, 公司也無(wú)法在成熟的服務(wù)業(yè)中進(jìn)行有效的競爭。企業(yè)無(wú)法在繁雜的管制性紅頭文件或一個(gè)不能迅速、公平地解決爭端的法院體系下進(jìn)行有效的競爭。商業(yè)環(huán)境

62、的某些方面, 例如法律制度或公司稅率, 也會(huì )影響所有產(chǎn)業(yè)。在發(fā)達的國家中, 商業(yè)環(huán)境中起決定性作用的方面通常是簇群所特有的,這為競爭打下了最重要的微觀(guān)經(jīng)濟基礎。</p><p>  簇群通過(guò)三種方式影響競爭:首先,通過(guò)增強以該領(lǐng)域為立足點(diǎn)的公司的生產(chǎn)力來(lái)施加影響; 其次,通過(guò)推動(dòng)創(chuàng )新的方向和步伐,為未來(lái)生產(chǎn)力的增長(cháng)奠定堅實(shí)的基礎; 再次,通過(guò)鼓勵新企業(yè)的形成,擴大并增強簇群本身來(lái)影響競爭。每個(gè)簇群總能使其每個(gè)成員

63、受益,仿佛它擁有更大的規?;蛞雅c其他簇群正式地聯(lián)合在一起——而并不要求它犧牲自身的靈活性。 </p><p>  簇群與生產(chǎn)力 成為簇群的一部分將使得公司在尋求投入、獲得信息技術(shù)及所要的制度、協(xié)調相關(guān)公司和促進(jìn)改善等方面運作起來(lái)更加有效。</p><p>  獲取雇員和供應商的更好途徑。在有活力的簇群內公司可以利用現有的各種專(zhuān)業(yè)化、有經(jīng)驗的雇員, 從而降低他們在招聘過(guò)程中的搜索成本和交易

64、成本。因為每一個(gè)大簇群意味著(zhù)有更多的機會(huì ),減少重新安置雇員的風(fēng)險。它還易于從其他地區吸引人才,從某些產(chǎn)業(yè)中攫取起決定性作用的優(yōu)勢。</p><p>  一個(gè)發(fā)展狀況良好的簇群為獲取其它重要的投入要素提供了一條有效的途徑。它提供了</p><p>  一個(gè)深層次、專(zhuān)業(yè)化的供應商基地。就地取材而不是從遙遠的供應商那里獲取資源,可以降低交易成本。這有助于把存貨需求降低到最小程度, 同時(shí)也有助于減

65、少進(jìn)口成本以及避免生產(chǎn)延誤。而且本地聲譽(yù)可以起到重要作用,它有助于降低供應商抬高價(jià)格或違約的風(fēng)險。地理位置的相近性有利于改善通訊聯(lián)絡(luò )、有利于供應商提供輔助性服務(wù), 諸如安裝、排除故障之類(lèi)的服務(wù)。然而, 如果其他條件相同, 就地取材比從遠處取材更為方便快捷, 尤其是對于那些涉及內在信息、技術(shù)和服務(wù)滿(mǎn)意度等先進(jìn)性、專(zhuān)業(yè)化的投入要素來(lái)說(shuō)更是如此。</p><p>  與外地供應商正式結盟,可以緩解從外地獲取資源的許多劣

66、勢。但是,所有正式的聯(lián)盟都</p><p>  將涉及他們各自復雜的議價(jià)問(wèn)題和管理問(wèn)題,從而限制了公司的靈活性和機動(dòng)性。所以,簇群</p><p>  內部各公司之間親密而又非正式的關(guān)系通常是較優(yōu)的選擇。</p><p>  在許多案例中,簇群是取代垂直一體化的更好選擇。與內設單位相比,外部的專(zhuān)家在部件</p><p>  生產(chǎn)和諸如培訓等服

67、務(wù)方面, 通常更具有成本效益和責任心。雖然廣泛的垂直一體化曾經(jīng)是</p><p>  我們的追求目標,但是,瞬息萬(wàn)變的外部環(huán)境可能使垂直一體化缺乏效率、效能和靈活性。</p><p>  即使某些投入要素最好從遠地獲取, 簇群也仍然可以提供某些優(yōu)勢。那些致力于滲入一</p><p>  個(gè)廣闊而又集中的市場(chǎng)的供應商們, 將會(huì )使其定價(jià)更具競爭性, 因為他們知道, 他們

68、的這一做法能夠實(shí)現營(yíng)銷(xiāo)和服務(wù)的高效率。</p><p>  如果資源配置違背簇群優(yōu)勢,競爭就可能導致配置代價(jià)更高和資源的短缺。但是,公司也可以從其他地區外購能減少成本損失的各種生產(chǎn)要素。更重要的是, 簇群不僅增加了對專(zhuān)門(mén)化投入要素的需求,而且還他們的供給。</p><p>  獲取專(zhuān)業(yè)化信息的途徑。簇群內廣泛積累了市場(chǎng)、技術(shù)和競爭的信息,簇群成員優(yōu)先獲取了這些信息。另外,個(gè)人關(guān)系和社會(huì )聯(lián)結

69、能培育信任,促進(jìn)信息的傳遞。所有上述條件都有利于信息的傳播。</p><p>  互補性。一個(gè)簇群的成員之間廣泛聯(lián)結而產(chǎn)生的總體力量大于其各部分之和。以一個(gè)典</p><p>  型的旅游簇群為例。觀(guān)光旅游者的旅游質(zhì)量不僅取決于景觀(guān)引人入勝的程度, 還有賴(lài)于互補</p><p>  性商業(yè)活動(dòng), 如旅館、餐館、商店和交通設施的質(zhì)量和效率。因為簇群內各個(gè)成員是相互依賴(lài)

70、的,某個(gè)成員的優(yōu)質(zhì)服務(wù)將促進(jìn)其他成員的成功。</p><p>  互補性表現形式眾多。正如上述旅游簇群說(shuō)明的那樣, 最為明顯的一種形式是許多產(chǎn)品在滿(mǎn)足顧客的需求方面相互補充。另外一種表現形式是, 公司之間的相互協(xié)調可以使他們的集體生產(chǎn)能力得到進(jìn)一步完善。以木制產(chǎn)品為例, 鋸木廠(chǎng)的效率有賴(lài)于高質(zhì)量木料的供應以及所有木材得到充分利用的能力。在20 世紀90 年代初期,葡萄牙鋸木廠(chǎng)因木材質(zhì)量差而遭受巨大損失。這是由于當

71、地土地所有者沒(méi)有投資于木材管理所致。從而,大多數木材被加工成貨盤(pán)和木箱, 這種低價(jià)值的使用限制了供給的價(jià)格。大量改進(jìn)生產(chǎn)力是有可能的, 但前提條件是, 簇群內的其他一些成員應同時(shí)改變經(jīng)營(yíng)方式。例如, 伐木廠(chǎng)必須改變砍伐和分類(lèi)程序, 并以更復雜的方式發(fā)展其加工木材的能力。共同協(xié)作以發(fā)展標準化的木材分類(lèi)法和測量法是一個(gè)非常重要而又切實(shí)可行的環(huán)節。然而,在地理位置上處于分散的公司,極少認識到這種聯(lián)結的重要性,也極少能利用這種聯(lián)結的好處。<

72、;/p><p>  其他互補性形式可能會(huì )出現于市場(chǎng)營(yíng)銷(xiāo)中。每個(gè)簇群總是在持續不斷地提高其在某個(gè)地區特定領(lǐng)域的聲譽(yù)。這一行為使得買(mǎi)者轉向賣(mài)者聚居地的可能性更大。例如,意大利在服裝與設計方面享有良好的聲譽(yù), 這些聲譽(yù)使那些涉及皮毛商品、鞋類(lèi)、衣服飾品等方面的生產(chǎn)公司受益匪淺。除聲譽(yù)外, 簇群成員還經(jīng)常能從大量的營(yíng)銷(xiāo)機制中獲益, 例如, 公司分派貿易展覽會(huì )、貿易雜志、營(yíng)銷(xiāo)代表團等。</p><p>

73、  最后,互補性使客戶(hù)傾向于購買(mǎi)簇群的東西。在單一的旅行中,觀(guān)光旅游者可以看到很多賣(mài)主(即提供旅游服務(wù)的公司) , 他們同樣會(huì )察覺(jué)到購買(mǎi)風(fēng)險降低了。這是因為一個(gè)地區內有眾多的供應商可供他們選擇, 所以, 當需求上升時(shí), 他們就有可能從多種渠道尋求要素投入或轉而尋求其他賣(mài)主。香港作為服飾業(yè)的基地而繁榮昌盛起來(lái),就部分地歸功于這一原因。</p><p>  獲取機構和公共物品的途徑。政府和其他公共機構的投資,例如專(zhuān)業(yè)

74、化基礎設施或教育項目方面的公共費用支出能夠提高公司的勞動(dòng)生產(chǎn)率。例如,公司招募那些在接受本地區項目培訓的雇員,可以降低公司內部培訓的成本。其他準公共物品,例如簇群信息技術(shù)庫和聲譽(yù)將作為競爭的天然副產(chǎn)品而出現。</p><p>  不僅僅是政府創(chuàng )造提高民間部門(mén)生產(chǎn)力的公共物品。公司如在培訓項目、基礎設施、質(zhì)量中心、實(shí)驗室等方面投資, 也將對生產(chǎn)率的提高做出貢獻。不過(guò), 諸如此類(lèi)的民間投資通常是由集體進(jìn)行的。因為簇群

75、成員認識到了這種集體合作利益的潛在可能性。</p><p>  更好的動(dòng)力和衡量。當地的競爭更具動(dòng)力。在簇群內部, 甚至在非競爭或非直接競爭的</p><p>  公司之間,共同的壓力將增強競爭性的壓力,自豪感以及想在本社區良好發(fā)展的目標使公司決策者們試圖一個(gè)一個(gè)擊敗競爭對手。</p><p>  簇群通??梢允购饬亢捅容^公司業(yè)績(jì)更為便捷。因為當地競爭對手是在相同的

76、環(huán)境——例如勞動(dòng)力成本和當地市場(chǎng)渠道一樣———下經(jīng)營(yíng)的,同時(shí)他們還從事相似的經(jīng)營(yíng)活動(dòng)。簇群內部各公司都一般非常熟悉其供貨商的生產(chǎn)成本。管理者們在成本和雇員的表現方面與其他地區的公司進(jìn)行比較。另外,金融機構可以積累簇群的相關(guān)知識,以監督其經(jīng)營(yíng)業(yè)績(jì)。</p><p>  簇群與創(chuàng )新 除提高勞動(dòng)生產(chǎn)率之外, 簇群在持續提高公司創(chuàng )新能力方面同樣也發(fā)揮著(zhù)關(guān)鍵性作用。有些增加現時(shí)生產(chǎn)力的相同特征對創(chuàng )新和生產(chǎn)力增長(cháng)起著(zhù)更為顯

77、著(zhù)的影響。</p><p>  因為老練理性的商品購買(mǎi)者通常也是簇群的一部分,所以簇群內的公司與獨立的公司相比,能更好的了解市場(chǎng)狀況。例如總部設在硅谷、奧斯汀、得克薩斯的計算機公司總是努力地探求客戶(hù)的消費需求和傾向, 這是其他公司無(wú)法比擬的。在簇群內, 與其他實(shí)體保持持續的關(guān)系, 還有助于公司更早地了解到演進(jìn)中的技術(shù)、零部件和機械的可用性,服務(wù)和營(yíng)銷(xiāo)概念等?,F場(chǎng)參觀(guān)的便利和頻繁的面對面聯(lián)系,使上述學(xué)習變得更為容易

78、。</p><p>  簇群做的更多的是為創(chuàng )新提供可見(jiàn)度更高的機會(huì )。同時(shí)它還具有迅速反應的能力和靈活性。簇群內的公司經(jīng)常能夠尋找到他們所需要的要素,以促進(jìn)創(chuàng )新更快地實(shí)現。當地供應商和合作伙伴能夠并且確實(shí)緊密的參與創(chuàng )新過(guò)程,進(jìn)一步確保與客戶(hù)需求保持一致。</p><p>  簇群內的公司能夠以較低的成本進(jìn)行實(shí)驗,推遲大額商業(yè)協(xié)議的履行,除非他們能確定既定的創(chuàng )新將如期執行。相比之下, 一個(gè)依賴(lài)

79、于遠地供貨商的公司在其與其他組織進(jìn)行協(xié)作的每一項活動(dòng)中———例如簽訂合同、確保交貨、獲得有關(guān)技術(shù)和服務(wù)支持等, 都將面臨極大的挑戰。對于垂直一體化的公司來(lái)說(shuō),創(chuàng )新將變得更為艱難。</p><p>  如果創(chuàng )新貶低了內部資產(chǎn)的價(jià)值, 或者當有新產(chǎn)品研發(fā)出來(lái)而又必須維護當前的產(chǎn)品或程序時(shí),他們將面臨交易的困難。加強創(chuàng )新的其他優(yōu)勢是發(fā)生在簇群內部的一種絕對性壓力,有競爭性壓力、同等條件下的壓力、持續不斷的比照壓力。決策

80、者們相互競爭的目的就是為了突出自己。簇群之所以持續幾十年成為創(chuàng )新的中心正是由于以上這些原因所致。</p><p>  簇群和新業(yè)務(wù)的形成 許多新公司能夠在既存的簇群內而不是在孤立的地區成長(cháng)起來(lái)并</p><p>  不奇怪。例如, 新的供應商能夠在一個(gè)簇群內擴大規模是因為一個(gè)客戶(hù)集中的基地可以減少</p><p>  風(fēng)險,使這更容易抓住市場(chǎng)機會(huì )。由于一個(gè)發(fā)展完善的

81、簇群包括一些相關(guān)產(chǎn)業(yè),這些相關(guān)產(chǎn)業(yè)</p><p>  通常能吸引相同或極其相似的要素投入,這樣,供應商享受著(zhù)擴張的機會(huì )。</p><p>  簇群有利于新商機形成可用很多原因來(lái)說(shuō)明。簇群內各個(gè)成員相互合作,更容易使他們感知到構成經(jīng)營(yíng)業(yè)務(wù)的產(chǎn)品或服務(wù)方面的差異。除此之外, 與其他地方相比, 這里的進(jìn)入障礙更低。在有簇群的地區經(jīng)常很容易得到所需要的資本、技術(shù)、投入和員工,把這些組合起來(lái)就可以

82、組成一個(gè)新的企業(yè)。</p><p>  那些已經(jīng)和簇群很熟悉的當地金融機構和投資者在資本方面要求有一個(gè)較低的風(fēng)險損失率。而且,簇群經(jīng)常代表著(zhù)一個(gè)顯著(zhù)的地方市場(chǎng)已經(jīng)形成。企業(yè)家能從已經(jīng)建立的諸多關(guān)系中受益。所有這些因素都降低了可以察覺(jué)到的、使企業(yè)不能退出的進(jìn)入風(fēng)險。</p><p>  簇群內新業(yè)務(wù)的形成是積極的反饋圈的一部分, 一個(gè)擴展的簇群增強了所有上述利益。它可以提高競爭性資源的共享性

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